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University Archives: Oliver O. Howard Papers

Collection Information

Title: Oliver O. Howard Papers

MSS. COLL.: #010

Dates: 1848-1957, n.d. [bulk 1898-1909, 1939-1953]

Extent: 2.75 Hollinger boxes (1.1 linear feet)

Sophomore Supper, Bowdoin College,

1848

Portrait of O. O. Howard,

ca. 1894

 

 

O. O. Howard Correspondence,

1899

O. O. Howard War Lectures

O. O. Howard War Lectures Series,

1902

O. O. Howard Memorial Sermon

O. O. Howard Memorial Sermon,

1909

Synopsis:  This collection is made up mostly of correspondence and publications of General Oliver Otis Howard.  The collection mostly concerns the administration of Lincoln Memorial University and memorials to its founder Major General Oliver Otis Howard.

Processing: This collection was processed and the finding aid written by University Archivist Travis Souther in April and May 2016.

Biographical Note:

Oliver Otis Howard was born November 8, 1830 to a farming family in the town of Leeds, Maine.  In his youth, Howard attended a number of schools in his native state including Monmouth Academy, North Yarmouth Academy, and Kents Hill School.  After graduating from Bowdoin College in 1850 at the young age of 19, he went on attend the United States Military Academy graduating fourth in the class of 1854. 

Howard married Elizabeth Anne Waite in 1855 with whom he would father seven children.  Transferred to Florida during the Seminole Wars, Howard converted to evangelical Christianity.  His conversion would later earn him the moniker, “the Christian general.”  Although he considered resigning from the army to become a minister, Howard decided to stay in the service of the United States upon the outbreak of hostilities during the American Civil War.

Howard saw active service during the four years of bloody conflict.  Assigned to the Army of the Potomac under Gen. George McClellan, he participated in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign.  During the Battle of Fair Oaks on June 1, 1862 Howard was wounded twice in the right arm necessitating its amputation.  For his gallantry under fire, Howard was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.  Quickly recovering, Howard rejoined the Army of the Potomac in time for the Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest day during the entire day.  After Antietam, Howard was given command of the XI Corps. 

During the summer of 1863, Howard’s military career suffered a series of embarrassments including disastrous flanking attacks by Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson at the Battle of Chancellorsville and another by Gen. Richard Ewell at Gettysburg two months later.  However, Howard had the foresight to select the high ground of Cemetery Hill on which to anchor a defensive line.  The position Howard held would see some of the heaviest fighting during the battle.  Four months after the battle, President Lincoln would stand upon the same ground as Howard’s men when he gave his Gettysburg Address.

Transferred to the Western Theater after Gettysburg, Howard went on to serve with distinction at the battles around Chattanooga.  Upon the death of Gen. James B. McPherson during the Battle of Atlanta, Howard took over command of the Army of the Tennessee (U.S.) leading the right wing of William Tecumseh Sherman’s now famous March to Sea. 

After the war, Howard held the post of Commissioner for the Freedmen’s Bureau, aiding former slaves in establishing new livelihoods and integrating them into society.  As much as he wished for peace, Howard’s days of fighting were not over.  Howard was ordered west, where he again served with distinction in the Nez Perce War and accepted the surrender of Chief Joseph.  Howard remained a member of the United States Army until his retirement in 1894.

During his life, educational advancement was a continual theme.  At the conclusion of the Civil War Howard helped to found Howard University in 1867 as a theological and educational institution.  Howard later helped to found Lincoln Memorial University in 1897 as a living monument to the life of Abraham Lincoln.

Long after his military service had ended, Howard continued to be active in veteran’s organizations.  He regularly gave lectures and talks about his life and experiences during the Civil War and wrote multiple books and articles for selected magazines.

Oliver Otis Howard passed away on October 26, 1909, two weeks before his 79th birthday.

Scope and Content Note:  Although a Major General during the American Civil War the collection contains few materials from Howard's service in the conflict.  A rather large portion of the collection is devoted to correspondence between Harry Stinson Howard, son of O. O. Howard and LMU President President Robert L. Kincaid.

Series Notes:

All series within this collection are arranged in general chronological order.

  • Series 1: O. O. Howard's Early Life:  This series is arranged in chronological order and contains programs from the first part of the life of O. O. Howard.  Of special interest are programs of events that Howard attended while a student at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, ME (1. 2 through 1. 5).
  • Series 2: O. O. Howard's Correspondence:  This series is arranged in chronological order and is concerned with the establishment and administration of Lincoln Memorial University.
  • Series 3: O. O. Howard Publications:  This series is arranged in chronological order and contains articles that O. O. Howard wrote for various magazines detailing his Civil War reminiscences and reflections.
  • Series 4: Publications Discussing O. O. Howard:  This series is arranged in chronological order and contains publications speaking specifically about O. O. Howard rather than publications that he wrote.
  • Series 5: Lincoln Memorial University:  This series is arranged in chronological order and is made up of only two items related to the founding of Lincoln Memorial University. 
  • Series 6: O. O. Howard Memorials:  This series is arranged in chronological order and holds resources related to the death of and memory of O. O. Howard.
  • Series 7: Portraits: This series is arranged in chronological order and contains images of O. O. Howard during the 1890s.
  • Series 8: Family Papers: This series is arranged in chronological order.
  • Series 9: Harry S. Howard Correspondence: This series is arranged in chronological order and contains correspondence between Harry S. Howard and LMU President Robert L. Kincaid regarding the memory of O. O. Howard and the administration of the university.
  • Series 10: Correspondence regarding Oliver O. Howard:  This series is arranged in chronological order.

Location: B.2.5.1 - B.2.5.3

Access Notes

The Archives and Special Collections of Lincoln Memorial University are located in the Carnegie-Vincent Library, on the 1st Floor.  Please schedule an appointment to view archival materials.  To schedule an appointment please contact the University Archivist.

matthew.souther@lmunet.edu

Sensitive Materials Policy

Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which Lincoln Memorial University assumes no responsibility.

Inventory

The numbers cited in parentheses, (e.g. 1.5), refer the researcher to the

(Series#. Folder#) in which that item will be found.

 

Series 1: Early Life

Biographical (1. 1)

Bowdoin College, Sophomore Supper: August 30, 1848 (1. 2)

Bowdoin College Junior Supper: August 29, 1849 (1. 3)

Public Exhibition, Senior and Junior Classes: November 22, 1849 (1. 4)

Bowdoin College Senior Supper: July 30, 1850 (1. 5)

Transcripts of Civil War Letters to OOH, 1863-1864 (1. 6)

Excerpts of Minutes, Board of Trustees, Howard University, 1869-1874 (1. 7)

General Orders No. 57 – OOH Retirement from Army, 1894 (1. 8)

 

Series 2: O.O. Howard Correspondence

Correspondence, 1895 (2. 1)

Correspondence, January 1898 (2. 2)

Correspondence, June 1898 (2. 3)

Correspondence, August 1898 (2. 4)

Correspondence, September 1898 (2. 5)

Correspondence, October 1898 (2. 6)

Correspondence, November 1898 (2. 7)

Correspondence, December 1898 (2. 8)

Correspondence, January 1899 (2. 9)

Correspondence, February 1899 (2. 10)

Correspondence, March 1899 (2. 11)

Correspondence, April 1899 (2. 12)

Correspondence, May 1899 (2. 13)

Correspondence, June 1899 (2. 14)

Correspondence, July 1899 (2. 15)

Correspondence, August 1899 (2. 16)

Correspondence, September 1899 (2. 17)

Correspondence, October 1899 (2. 18)

Correspondence, November 1899 (2. 19)

Correspondence, December 1899 (2. 20)

Correspondence, January 1900 (2. 21)

Correspondence, February 1900 (2. 22)

Correspondence, March 1900 (2. 23)

Correspondence, April 1900 (2. 24)

Correspondence, May 1900 (2. 25)

Correspondence, June 1900 (2. 26)

Correspondence, August 1900 (2. 27)

Correspondence, September 1900 (2. 28)

Correspondence, November 1900 (2. 29)

Correspondence, December 1900 (2. 30)

Correspondence, January 1901 (2. 31)

Correspondence, February 1901 (2. 32)

Correspondence, March 1901 (2. 33)

Correspondence, April 1901 (2. 34)

Correspondence, May 1901 (2. 35)

Correspondence, June 1901 (2. 36)

Correspondence, September 1901 (2. 37)

Correspondence, 1902 (2. 38)

Correspondence, January 1903 (2. 39)

Correspondence, April 1903 (2. 40)

Correspondence, May 1903 (2. 41)

Correspondence, January 1904 (2. 42)

Correspondence, May 1904 (2. 43)

Correspondence, June 1904 (2. 44)

Correspondence, July 1904 (2. 45)

Correspondence, August 1904 (2. 46)

Correspondence, September 1904 (2. 47)

Correspondence, October 1904 (2. 48)

Correspondence, November 1904 (2. 49)

Correspondence, December 1904 (2. 50)

Correspondence, January 1905 (2. 51)

Correspondence, February 1905 (2. 52)

Correspondence, March 1905 (2. 53)

Correspondence, April 1905 (2. 54)

Correspondence, May 1905 (2. 55)

Correspondence, July 1905 (2. 56)

Correspondence, September 1905 (2. 57)

Correspondence, January 1906 (2. 58)

Correspondence, April 1906 (2. 59)

Correspondence, June 1906 (2. 60)

Correspondence, July 1906 (2. 61)

Correspondence, August 1906 (2. 62)

Correspondence, October 1906 (2. 63)

Correspondence, December 1906 (2. 64)

Correspondence, February 1907 (2. 65)

Correspondence, May 1907 (2. 66)

Correspondence, June 1907 (2. 67)

Correspondence, July 1907 (2. 68)

Correspondence, September 1907 (2. 69)

Correspondence, October 1907 (2. 70)

Correspondence, June 1908 (2. 71)

Correspondence, July, 1908 (2. 72)

Correspondence, October 1908 (2. 73)

Correspondence, November 1908 (2. 74)

Correspondence, December 1908 (2. 75)

Correspondence, January 1909 (2. 76)

Correspondence, March 1909 (2. 77)

Correspondence, April 1909 (2. 78)

Correspondence, June 1909 (2. 79)

Correspondence, July 1909 (2. 80)

Correspondence, September 1909 (2. 81)

Correspondence, October 1909 (2. 82)

Correspondence, n.d. (2. 83)

 

Series 3: Publications by Oliver Otis Howard

Southern Workman, Address of Gen. Howard, June 1889 (3. 1)

War Lectures by Gen. OOH, February 1901 (Brochure) (3. 2)

 “Folk of the Cumberland Gap”, by O.O. Howard, 1902 (3. 3)

Pg. 614-615, King’s Notable New Yorkers, 1899 (3. 4)

“Lincoln’s Monument in the Mountains” by O.O. Howard, National Magazine, Vol. 22, June 1905, pg.299-304 (3. 5)

 “The Negro as a Free Man” by O.O. Howard, Alexander’s Magazine, Vol. 6: September 15, 1908 (3. 6)

Century Magazine “Personal Recollections of Abraham Lincoln”, by O.O. Howard, 1908 (3. 7)

“Lincoln As I Knew Him” by O.O. Howard: May 28, 1909 (3. 8)

 

Series 4: Publications Discussing OOH

“The Empty Sleeve” by David Barker, ca. 1902 (4. 1)

“Military Career of O.O. Howard, Major-General U.S. Army Retired” ca. 1905 (4. 2)

Gettysburg by Theodora Peck – Story told by OOH: March 26, 1906 (4. 3)

“Major General Oliver Otis Howard” by Edgar O. Achorn, 1910 (4. 4)

 “Abraham Lincoln: The First American” Boys and Girls of the World No. 43, ca. 1910 (4. 5)

 “General Howard on Woman’s Sacrifice” by William J. Hart, Epworth Herald: May 27, 1911 (4. 6)

 

Series 5: LMU

Envelope once containing Reports on LMU, 1901 (5. 1)

“Murdoch of Buckhorn”, by G. Gordon Mahy 1946 – Founding of LMU (5. 2)

 

Series 6: Memorials

Obituary, 1909 (6. 1)

“Gen. O.O. Howard,” New York Globe and Commercial Advertiser: October 27, 1909 (6. 2)

“Major-General Oliver Otis Howard, 1830-1909”; Memorial Sermon: October 29, 1909 (6. 3)

Burlington Free Press and Times: October 30, 1909 (Funeral Notice) (6. 4)

Southern Workman, vol. 38, No. 12, “General O.O. Howard”: December 1909 (6. 5)

Report of Pension Committee, Elizabeth Ann Howard, 1910 (6. 6)

“Widow of General Howard Forced by Poverty to Sell Her Home” 1910 (6. 7)

Gettysburg Statue Program, 1932 (6. 8)

Gettysburg Statue Final Report, 1932 (6. 9)

Mountain Herald, “In Memory of General Howard”, June 1933 (6. 10)

Burlington City Cemeteries, 1936 (6. 11)

Gettysburg Statue, Letters and Photos, 1938-1952 (6. 12)

US Military Academy Inscription – found beneath portrait at USMA at West Point, nd (6. 13)

 

Series 7: Portraits

Century Magazine, Portrait of OOH, 1886 (7. 1)

OOH Portrait – ca. 1894 (7. 2)

J.E. Kelley Photo of OOH, Bas relief, 1899 (7. 3)

 

Series 8: Family Papers

Howard, Charles H., 1880 (8. 1)

Howard, Ward R., 1938 (8. 2)

Davies, John R., 1940 (8. 3)

Bancroft, Elizabeth Howard, Obituary, 1941 (8. 4)

Howard, Harriet, 1949-1964, n.d. (8. 5)

Howard, Sue E., 1950-1952 (8. 6)

Howard, Frank B., 1950-1956 (8. 7)

Howard, Clinton N., 1952 (8. 8)

Gray, Mary A., 1956 (8. 9)

Howard, Burt F., 1957 (8. 10)

Howard, Donald C., 1957 (8. 11)

Webb, Susan Howard, n.d. (8. 12)

 

Series 9: Harry S. Howard Correspondence

Biographical (9. 1)

Harry S. Howard to Ernest A. Hamill: April 3, 1899 (9. 2)

Harry S. Howard to Chas. F. Eager: May 29, 1900 (9. 3)

Harry S. Howard to Pres. Stooksbury: July 4, 1903 (9. 4)

Harry S. Howard to Pres. Stooksbury: December 13, 1904 (9. 5)

Harry S. Howard to Herman Hughes: July 27, 1906 (9. 6)

Harry S. Howard to Prof. J. H. Moore, Dean Lincoln Memorial University: May 23, 1910 (9. 7)

Harry S. Howard to Dr. Hubbell, Pres. Lincoln Memorial University: June 11, 1910 (9. 8)

Harry S. Howard to Chas. F. Eager: April 15, 1921 (9. 9)

Harry S. Howard to Editor of the Mountain Herald: January 16, 1930 (9. 10)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: May 5, 1939 (9. 11)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: May 27, 1939 (9. 12)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: September 25, 1939 (9. 13)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: October 7, 1939 (9. 14)

Robert Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: October 10, 1939 (9. 15)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: October 17, 1939 (9. 16)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: December 6, 1939 (9. 17)

Harry S. Howard to the Hon. Governors of the States of Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and to President McClelland: January 10, 1940 (9. 18)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: January 15, 1940 (9. 19)

Unknown to Harry S. Howard, December 12, 1940 (9. 20)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: December 30, 1940 (9. 21)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: April 12, 1942 (9. 22)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: April 23, 1942 (9. 23)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: May 1, 1942 (9. 24)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: May 15, 1942 (9. 25)

Harry S. Howard to Stewart McClelland: May 31, 1942 (9. 26)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: September 5, 1942 (9. 27)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: September 17, 1942 (9. 28)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: September 19, 1942 (9. 29)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: September 24, 1942 (9. 30)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: September 25, 1942 (9. 31)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: October 5, 1942 (9. 32)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: October 6, 1942 (9. 33)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: October 10, 1942 (9. 34)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: October 12, 1942 (9. 35)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: October 13, 1942 (9. 36)

Harry S. Howard to F. W. Lafrentz: October 27, 1942 (9. 37)

Harry S. Howard to F. W. Lafrentz: October 27, 1942 (9. 37)

Harry S. Howard to Stewart McClelland: October 29, 1942 (9. 38)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: November 6, 1942 (9. 39)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: January 19, 1943 (9. 40)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: January 21, 1943 (9. 41)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: January 23, 1943 (9. 42)

Sunday School Times Article on O. O. Howard: March 20, 1943 (9. 43)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: July 19, 1943 (9. 44)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: July 24, 1943 (9. 45)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: July 27, 1943 (9. 46)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: January 9, 1944 (9. 47)

Stewart W. McClelland to Harry S. Howard: December 4, 1944 (9. 48)

Clippings - Burlington [Vermont] Free Press: June 1, 1945 (9. 49)

Harry S. Howard to "Dear Doctor [Stewart W. McClelland?]": June 15, 1945 (9. 50), see Clippings dated June 1, 1945

Harry S. Howard to Stewart W. McClelland: June 25, 1945 (9. 51)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: January 27, 1949 (9. 52)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: February 5, 1949 (9. 53)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: February 9, 1949 (9. 54)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: April 29, 1949 (9. 55)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: May 13, 1949 (9. 56)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: May 16, 1949 (9. 57)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harriet Howard: July 6, 1949 (9. 58)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: July 6, 1949 (9. 59)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: August 2, 1949 (9. 60)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: August 5, 1949 (9. 61)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: November 10, 1949 (9. 62)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: November 15, 1949 (9. 63)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: September 26, 1950 (9. 64)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: October 5, 1950 (9. 65)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: October 9, 1950 (9. 66)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: October 15, 1950 (9. 67)

Faye Davis to Harry S. Howard: October 18, 1950 (9. 68)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: November 1, 1950 (9. 69)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: January 31, 1951 (9. 70)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: June 7, 1951 (9. 71)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: July 2, 1951 (9. 72)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: July 7, 1951 (9. 73)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: April 19, 1952 (9. 74)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: April 29, 1952 (9. 75)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: May 12, 1952 (9. 76)

[Robert L. Kincaid?] to Harry S. Howard: November 10, 1953 (9. 77)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: November 24, 1953 (9. 78)

[Robert L. Kincaid?] to Harry S. Howard: November 27, 1953 (9. 79)

Christmas Card, Harry S. Howard to [Robert L. Kincaid?]: Christmas 1953 (9. 80)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: September 18, 1956 (9. 81)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: September 21, 1956 (9. 82)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: January 24, 1957 (9. 83)

Robert L. Kincaid to Harry S. Howard: February 22, 1957 (9. 84)

Christmas Card, Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: Christmas 1957 (9. 85)

Harry S. Howard to Robert L. Kincaid: n.d. (9. 86)

Sayings of Gen. O. O. Howard: n.d. (9. 87)

 

Series 10: Correspondence regarding Oliver O. Howard

Begin, William E., 1939 (10. 1)

Boyer, Kenneth J., 1939 (10. 2)

Edwards, G. Roger, 1939 (10. 3)

Miller, W.S., 1939 (10. 4)

Peet, Edward W. regarding Julia Haven, 1941 (10. 5)

Howard, Lucius, 1942 (10. 6)

Neikirk, Floyd E., 1949 (10. 7)

Bond, Horace M., Lincoln Memorial University, 1951 (10. 8)

Powell, C. Percy, Library of Congress, 1951 (10. 9)

Purves, Robert Ogden, Hampton Institute, 1951 (10. 10)

Howard, Alden L., Sr., 1966 (10. 11)

Cole, Mrs. Norton C., 1967 (10. 12)

Citation

[Identification of Item], Oliver O. Howard Papers, Archives and Special Collections, Lincoln Memorial University, TN, USA.

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